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Fiqh Q and A

Worship on the 15th of Sha’ban

*Article taken from muslimmatters.org

 

Fussing Over the 15th of Sha‘ban

Posted by: Abu Aaliyah June 21, 2013in Aqeedah and FiqhFeaturedIslamOpinionQuran and SunnahWorship 26 Comments

Question: Is marking out the 15th night of Sha’ban (laylat al-nisf min sha’ban) with extra prayers and devotion sanctioned by Islam, or is doing so judged to be a reprehensible innovation (bid’ah)?

Answer: Each year, a fair amount of fussing and fighting takes place over this issue. Yet the truth of the matter is that scholars have long-held this issue to be one over which there is a valid difference of opinion. The first group considered the night to have no specific virtues over and above any other night of the year, and believed that singling the night out for extra acts of worship is unsanctioned. Another group begged to differ and held that the middle night of Sha’ban does possess special merits and should be earmarked for extra prayers and devotion.

What follows is a discussion about why such a difference has arisen and how each of the two stances has its legitimacy in the canons of classical Islamic jurisprudence. The discussion will also make a distinction between prayer in mid-Sha’ban and the prayerof mid-Sha’ban: the first, as will be shown, is textually grounded; the second, actually unfounded.

I

Although there is no explicit reference to the 15th of Sha’ban in the actual Qur’an, the hadith corpus does record the merits or fada’il of this night – of which the following hadiths are among the most significant and widely cited:

1. The hadith of Mu’adh b. Jabal that relates the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) saying: ‘God looks at His creation during the middle night of Sha’ban and forgives all of them, except an idolator and one who harbours rancour.’1

2. The hadith of ‘Abd Allāh b.’Amr where the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said: ‘God, majestic is He, looks at His creation on the middle night of Sha’ban and forgives all of His slaves, save an idolater and a murderer.’2

3. The hadith of the lady ‘A’ishah: ‘Allāh, exalted is He, descends to the nearest heaven in the middle night of Sha’ban and His forgiveness is greater than the number of hairs on the sheep [in the tribe] of Kalb.’3

II

At first blush, the bone of contention seems to be settled. For if the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) has spoken about the merits of mid-Sha’ban (as per the above hadiths), then who are we to object. That said, the fact of the matter is that the actual authenticities of the above hadiths have been greatly disputed. Hadith specialists differ over whether or not the above words can be reliably ascribed to the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him).

Typifying those in ‘the night has no special distinction’ camp is the acclaimed Maliki jurist, Qadi Abu Bakr b. al-‘Arabi, who said: ‘There is no authentic hadith which may be relied upon in respect to the middle night of Sha’ban; neither about its merits, nor the decree being written in it. So pay no attention to it.’4 Others in this camp include Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Tartushi and al-Hafiz al-‘Iraqi.5

This group of eminent scholars take the view that, although there is a sizeable body of hadiths that speak about the merits of this night, none of these hadiths are free from having defects and flaws in their chains. Some contain narrators whose memory and precision have been called into question. Some contain missing links in their chains. While in other cases they contain narrators whose truthfulness or veracity have been seriously doubted and disparaged.

III

In contrast, there are those who advocate singling out mid-Sha’ban with optional acts of devotion. Their reasoning is straightforward enough. They take the view that since some of the hadiths about mid-Sha’ban are only mildly weak they may, according to certain established rules in the science of hadith, be used to strengthen one another to yield a final grading of sahih or hasan (“authentic” or “sound”). On this basis, Ibn al-ṣalāh, the notable Shafi’i jurists and hadith master, ruled: ‘The middle night of Sha’ban does have merit. To spend its night in acts of worship is recommended (mustahabb); but on an individual basis, not collectively.’6

Ibn Taymiyyah wrote: ‘Hadiths and salaf-reports about the virtues of the middle night [of Sha’ban] have been related. It is also reported about a group of the salaf that they would pray during the night. Thus the prayer of someone praying individually during the night has a precedent with some of the salaf, and therefore stands as a proof for it. So it cannot be objected to.’7

In another fatwa, he stated: ‘If someone offers prayer in the middle-night of Sha’ban, whether individually or collectively, then this is excellent (fa huwa ahsan).’8

In closing his definitive account about the 15th of Sha’ban and the stance of the early scholars concerning it, Ibn Rajab states: ‘Thus it befits a believer to devote himself in this night to God’s remembrance (dhikr), exalted is He, and to asking Him to pardon one’s sins, conceal one’s faults and relieve his hardships. This should be preceded by offering sincere repentance. For God, exalted is He, relents towards those who turn to Him in repentance.’9

IV

The above is a sample of the juristic difference surrounding mid-Sha’ban. And insofar as there is a legitimate difference on the subject, there need be no fussing over the 15th of Sha’ban; no dividing Muslims over it; no deploying it as a benchmark to distinguish ‘pure’ follower of the Sunnah from ‘tainted’ ones; and no whipping up a frenzy among the public by blowing things out of proportion. Wherever such schisms are occurring, they simply have to stop, and repentance be made.

Upon investigation into both views, those qualified in the art of juristic evaluation and who see the validity of the night’s virtue, honour it; those who do not, treat it like any other night. The rest of the Muslims are muqallids; in other words, they simply follow the scholar they trust or feel at ease with in the issue, leaving it at that. Ibn Taymiyyah wrote:

‘Whoever adopts a view by being a muqallid to someone, cannot rebuke one who takes another view due to being a muqallid to someone else. But if one of them does have a conclusive shari’ah proof, it is required to comply with it when it becomes known. It is not allowed for anyone to to say that one view is preferable to another, without  proof; nor be biased to one opinion over another – or one person over another – without a definitive proof. Instead, one who is a muqallid is obliged to follow a qualified scholar: he cannot evaluate, weigh-up, or say something is right or wrong … As for someone who only knows the opinion of one scholar and his proofs, but does not know the other scholar’s opinion or proofs, he is from the generality of the muqallids. He is not of the scholars who are able to evaluate or weigh-up [proofs].’10

V

The above discussion tackled the subject of prayer in mid-Sha’ban. As for the prayer ofmid-Sha’ban, often called ṣalāh al-alfiyyah – “Prayer of One Thousand Quls” – many a scholarly objection has been levelled against it. Ibn Taymiyyah, as an example, having endorsed praying optional prayers during this night, cautioned: ‘As for assembling in mosques so as to pray a fixed and defined prayer – such as congregating to offer one hundred rak’ahs of prayer that require reciting Say: “HeAllāh, in One!” one thousand times during it – this is an innovation which none of the salaf ever recommended.’11

Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari states about ṣalāh al-alfiyyah: ‘How bizarre it is from those who have inhaled the fragrance of the knowledge of the Sunnah that they be taken in by such nonsense and pray it. This prayer was contrived in Islam after the fourth century and originated from Jerusalem.’12

In his documentation of various innovations and infringements against the Sunnah,al-Suyuti wrote: ‘And this includes ṣalāh al-alfiyyah, which is prayed in the middle of Sha’ban. It is a lengthy and arduous prayer which is neither established by any [sound] hadith, nor any weak report from any of the salaf. The masses are put to trial with it, in their striving to perform it.’13

There is, I suggest, a peppering of confusion here. For some people mistakenly use the words of some jurists who have censured ṣalāh al-alfiyyah, and have taken this to mean that they object to any prayer or act of worship during the said night. In other words, they have confused between censuring a specific prayer of mid-Sha’ban and prayer in mid-Sha’ban. The first censure doesn’t entail the second, as can be seen in the fatwas from Ibn Taymiyyah.

VI

In winding up the discussion, let me gloss two more concerns related to mid-Sha’ban. The first concerns fasting the 15th day of Sha’ban, based on the hadith: ‘When it is the middle night of Sha’ban, pray the night and fast the following day.’14 Al-‘Iraqi is one of a number of hadith masters who have graded this hadith to be weak (da’if).15 Ibn Rajab concluded likewise,16 as did al-Mundhari.17 Majd b. Taymiyyah declared: ‘The merits of the middle night of Sha’ban are related in the [hadith] narratives and salaf-reports, proving its virtue. There were those of the salaf who even singled it out with prayer. Also, fasting in Sha’ban is related in the sound reports: as for specifying the fifteenth day to fast, this has no [sound] basis to it. Rather, it is disliked to do so.’18

Other exhort fasting this day, based on the principle of fada’il al-a’mal – encouraging “virtuous deeds”. This is the rule which states that, provided a hadith is not a forgery or extremely weak, then it is permitted to put it into practice, if the deed it is encouraging already has a general basis in the shari’ah.19 In this case, they say to fast the “white [full moon] days” – the 13th, 14th and 15th of each lunar month – is encouraged in the sahih hadiths; so this forms a general basis for fasting mid-Sha’ban.

VII

Some people believe that the yearly decree is written down during the 15th night of Sha’ban; and this is the second and last loose end that will be discussed. The yearly decree is mentioned in the verse: We sent it down on a blessed night, for We are warning. In that night every affair is wisely decided. [44:2-3] Though it is related from ‘Ikrimah, an eminent scholar among the Successors, that he held the night in which every affair is widely decided to be the middle-night of Sha’ban; a second opinion is related from him which says that the night refers to laylat al-qadr – “The Night of Power”.20 This latter view is also that of the vast majority of scholars.21

Hence, Ibn al-‘Arabi asserted: ‘The majority of scholars hold that it refers to laylat al-qadr. Some have stated that it refers to the night of mid-Sha’ban; however, this [latter] view is futile.’22

And God knows best.

References:

1. Ibn Majah, no.1390; Ibn Hibban, no.1980. After evaluating eight different chains for this hadith, al-Albani concludes: ‘The hadith, with its collective chains of transmission, is authentic (sahih) without doubt.’ Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Sahihah (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Ma’arif, 1979), 3:138.

2. Ahmad, Musnad, no.6642. Al-Albani stated: ‘There is no harm in using this chain as support.’ Refer to: Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Sahihahah, 3:136.

3. Ibn Majah, no.1389; al-Tirmidhi, no.736. Al-Mubarakpuri wrote: ‘Collectively, such hadiths constitute a proof on those who allege that nothing is confirmed with respect to the merits of the middle night of Sha’ban.’ Consult: Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi bi Sharh Jami’ al-Tirmidhi (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990), 3:367.

4. Ahkam al-Qur’an (Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi, n.d.), 4:1690.

5. See: Kitab al-Mawdu’at (Riyadh: Adwa al-Salaf, 1997), 2:440-45; al-Mughni ‘an Haml al-Asfar (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Tabariyyah, 1995), 1:157; al-Hawadith wa’l-Bida’ (Riyadh: Dar al-Samay’i, 2000), 3:789, respectively.

6. Approvingly cited by al-Suyuti, al-Amr bi’l-Ittiba’ wa’l-Nahy ‘an’l-Ibtida’ (Riyadh: Dar Ibn al-Qayyim, 2001), 170.

7. Majmu’ Fatawa (Riyadh: Dar ‘Alam al-Kutub, 1991), 23:132.

8. ibid., 23:131.

9. Lata’if al-Ma’arif (Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm & Mu’assasah al-Rayyan, 1996), 154.

10. Majmu’ Fatawa, 35:233.

11. ibid., 23:131.

12. Al-Asrar al-Marfu’ah fi’l-Akhbar al-Mawdu’ah (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1986), 439-40.

13. Al-Amr bi’l-Ittiba’ wa’l-Nahy ‘an’l-Ibtida’, 176.

14. Ibn Majah, no.1388.

15. Al-Mughni ‘an Haml al-Asfar, 1:157; no.634.

16. Lata’if al-Ma’arif, 151.

17. Al-Targhib wa’l-Tarhib (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Ma’arif, 2003), no.1491.

18. Cited in al-Munawi, Fayd al-Qadir (Beirut: Dar al-Ma’rifah, n.d.), 2:317.

19. This principle is discussed in al-Nawawi, al-Adhkar (Jeddah: Dar al-Minhaj, 2008), 36; Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmu’ Fatawa, 18:65-6; al-Sakhawi, citing Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani,al-Qawl al-Badi’ (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1987), 215.

20. See: Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1984), 7:336-37, where the two conflicting views ascribed to ‘Ikrimah are reported.

21. Consult: al-Tabari, Jami’ an Ta’wil al-Qur’an (Cairo: Dar Hijr, 2001), 21:5-6; Qurtubi,al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an (Beirut: Dar al-Kutib al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996), 16:84-5; Ibn Kathir,Tafsir Qur’an al-‘Azim (Beirut: Dar al-Ma’rifah, 1987), 4:148; Sawi, Hashiyah al-Sawi ‘ala Tafsir al-Jalalayn (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2000), 5:261; Ibn ‘Ashur, al-Tahrir wa’l-Tanwir (Beirut: Mu’assasah Tarikh al-‘Arabi, 2000), 25:308.

22. Ahkam al-Qur’an, 4:1690.

Categories
Customs End of Life Fiqh Q and A

Ruling on Women Following Funeral Processions

*This article was written by Shaykh Luqman Ahmad and taken from his website, click here for the original.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Al-humdu lillahi Rabbil aalameen, wa salaatu wa salaam alaa Rasoolilllah, wa alaa aalihi wa sah’bihi wa sallam

A short time ago there was a death in our area and after the janaazah prayer, the women were told to stay away from following the funeral procession to the burial site. Among those present were the wife and female children of the deceased. The announcement was disheartening to them, and to others who then asked me what my opinion on the matter was. Al-humdu lillah we were able to redress the issue and allowed them to accompany us to the grave yard to offer their du’aa and to pay their last respects to their husband and father, and they did so without any wailing, any misconduct and without losing control of themselves in any way. However, I became aware that this is a prevalent understanding of many Muslims in the United States that women are not allowed to accompany the funeral procession to the grave site under any circumstances. Thus, we release the following statement in order to clarify the question. Wal Allahul Musta’aan wa bihi tawfiq.

Women following the funeral procession and going to the grave site

This issue is both a matter of urf (local custom) and fiqh (Islamic law). The part of it that deals with urf , is; what is the local custom amongst Muslims in America is with regard to women’s role and behavior at funerals, and whether or not that behavior is permissible based upon the Quran, the sunna and the analysis of our scholars.  The other part of the matter is the definitive understanding of this issue by our Prophet (SAWS), his companions, the Salaf of our ummah and the people of knowledge. Wa Allahul Musta’aan, wa bihi tawfiq.

The objective of understanding the religion and the proper practice thereof is not served when we apply a ruling to a condition that does not exist. When people say: women following the funeral procession, and going to the grave site, what is meant here in the United States and elsewhere is when after the janaazah prayer is over, they follow the burial procession to the grave site, and stand and be witnesses to the body of the deceased being lowered into the ground and put to rest while they make du’aa, and stand quietly, and allow the men to do the actual lowering and speaking if any. This is the practice as it occurs here in the United States and therefore this is what the ruling needs to apply to.

The reason women were prohibited from the graves

The prohibition and disliked nature of women attending the gravesites is not simply a matter of a female presence at the grave; it is a matter of unlawful and unislamic behavior, some of which would harm the deceased and add to their punishment, as mentioned in the hadith; “Indeed the deceased will be tortured for those who wail over him.”[1] This understanding is also taken from the hadith; “There are four things from the affair of the days of ignorance that my nation will not abandon; boasting about one’s status, criticizing people’s lineage, seeking rain from the stars, and wailing over the dead. And if the wailing woman does not repent before she dies, she will be made to stand on the Day of Judgment wearing a garment of tar and a mangy coat of armor.”[2]  In the days of jaahiliyyah (ignorance), before the guidance of Islam, the women during that time used to tear their clothes and beat their cheeks and make unlawful utterances upon the death of someone, and the Prophet (SAWS) used to disavow such behavior; “They are not from us; those who beat their cheeks, tear open their garments, and call out with cries from the days of ignorance.”,[3]

Understanding of the scholars regarding this prohibition

The textual prohibition of women going to the graves is found in the hadith of Umm Atiyyah; :”We have been forbidden to accompany funeral processions but it wasn’t strict upon us” [4] In explaining this hadith, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani says: “The phrase ‘but it wasn’t strict upon us’ [wa lam yu’zam alainaa] means; he didn’t make it a firm prevention for us like he made other things that were prohibited. So it’s as if she [Umm Atiyyah] said; he disliked for us to follow the funeral procession without making it prohibited”.[5] In this respect, Imam al-Qurtubi said: “the apparent wording of Umm Atiyyah indicates that the nahiy [prohibition] here isnahiy tanzeeh[6][prohibitively disliked]. The hadith is also a daleel (proof) that there are degrees in prohibition and that not all statements of prohibition from the Prophet (SAWS) have the same meaning. Imam al-Qurtubi goes on to state: This is the position of the majority of people of knowledge, and Imam Malik leans towards it being permissible outright, which was the position of the people of Medina.

The permissibility of women attending the gravesite is further supported by what was related by Ibn Abi Shayba in the hadith of Abu Hurraira that the Messenger of Allah was at a funeral and Umar saw a woman (following the funeral procession). He yelled at her, but the Prophet (SAWS) said to him: “Leave her alone, `Umar! Verily her eyes shed tears, the soul feels the pangs, and the promised hour is near.”[7] According to Abu Hasan ad-Dawudi[8] the meaning of the Prophet’s statement “and it wasn’t strict upon us” is so that we do not go to the family of the dead, console them, and invoke blessing upon their deceased and then not follow the funeral procession. The majority if not all of the hadith regarding the prohibition of women attending funeral processions, except for the hadith I mentioned from Sahih al-Bukhaari, are weak. However what it prohibited, is unlawful behavior such as wailing, tearing the clothing, jumping into caskets, cursing Allah’s decree, beating one’s self, and like behavior.

 

The Islamic ruling regarding women attending the funeral procession and visiting the graves

Following the body of the deceased to the grave yard is a right of the dead upon the living according to the hadith: “the right of a Muslim over a Muslim are six” and at the end of the hadith is the phrase; “and when he dies, follow him”. This is the agreed upon position of Ahlus sunna past and present. The ruling of whether or not women should be allowed to accompany the funeral procession to the gravesite is predicated upon whether or not unislamic behavior will occur as a result of their grieving. What constitutes normal behavior occurring during funerals varies from country to country and sometimes even from region to region. Because of the tumultuous conditions in many parts of the Muslim world, many deaths of Muslims are a result of bombings, terror, war, retaliation and factionalism. These are all circumstances where emotions may run high and wailing is more likely to occur. Additionally, many funerals accompany protest which is another reason for high emotions.

In the United States, at this juncture in our history, most deaths of Muslims are due to illness, old age, accidents, and natural causes. In cases where death is from homicide, it is usually one or two persons. Amongst American Muslims, there has never been an accepted tradition of wailing over the dead, tearing clothing, jumping into the casket, cursing Allah, or questioning His decree with regards to someone’s soul being taken. Some of these practices did exist in jaahiliyyah before people entered into Islam, and some of it still exists amongst non-Muslims. However, this type of behavior amongst Muslim Americans was addressed and stamped out early on, and the Islamic prohibition on these things has been pretty well known across the board by the general Muslim population here in the United States.

Furthermore, we do not have a history of paid mourners, wailing parties, and mass hysteria during funerals amongst the Muslim women folk here in our country.  Although it has happened on occasion that one or two persons would get out of hand, this is has been usually corrected immediately by others who are present. I have been present at scores of funerals and have seen the women present at scores of burials and have never witnessed or even heard of women wailing, yelling, cursing, tearing their clothes, or beating their cheeks at funerals.

Similar moral progress occurred during the time of the Prophet (SAWS) with regards to visiting the grave sites. In the beginning of the Prophetic era, there was a need to prevent the women from the gravesites because of their recent habit to jaahiliyyah practices, and later as people gained greater understanding, the prohibition was rescinded. In the hadith of Abu Hurraira, the Prophet (SAWS) said: “I used to prohibit you from visiting the graves, now (I say) visit them for verily it will remind you of death[9]. In another tradition, the Prophet (SAWS) saw a woman crying at a grave so he told her: ‘Fear Allah and be patient.[10] It is duly noted in this hadith that the Prophet (SAWS) did not forbid her from staying at the grave. The Mother of the Believers, Aisha (RA) continued to visit the graves after the death of the Prophet (SAWS), as mentioned in the hadith of Abdullah Ibn Abi Mulaykah, who said: `Aisha came one day from the graveyard, so I said: “O Mother of Believers, from where have you come?” She said: “From the grave of `Abdul-Rahmaan Ibn Abi Bakr.” I said: “Did not the Prophet (SAWS) forbid visiting the graves?”She said: “Yes, then he commanded us to visit them.”[11]

Therefore, based upon the fact that Muslims in America, as a rule do not engage in the practices of wailing, tearing clothing, beating the cheeks, and hollering out bad statements at funerals, and the evidence from the sunna of the Prophet (SAWS) and the view of the scholars we have mentioned, it is not haram for Muslim women to accompany the funeral procession to the grave sites as long as they are able to control themselves from the unlawful types of behavior that we have mentioned in the hadith. If there is a probability that attendance at the burial will stir emotions to a degree where unlawful behavior will likely occur, and If the standards of adab and decorum cannot be maintained when following the funeral procession to the gravesite, then it is prohibitively disliked. And Allah knows best.

Shaykh Abu Laith Luqman Ahmad

Imam Masjid Ibrahim Islamic Center

Sacramento, Ca

Categories
Fiqh Prayer Q and A

Q&A: Switching Off One’s Cell Phone During Prayer

Answered by the team at islamtoday.net. Original fatwa can be found here.

 

Question

If my cell phone starts ringing while I am praying in congregation at the mosque, what should I do? Must I break off my prayer to switch it off? Is it possible for me to take out my cell phone and switch if off without nullifying my prayers?

Answered by

Sheikh Ahmad al-Khalîl, professor at al-Imâm University, Qasîm Branch
You should take care to turn off your cell phone before entering the mosque. If you forget to do so and the phone rings while you are praying, then you should turn it off to avoid causing any disturbance to your fellow worshippers who are humbling themselves before Allah in prayer.

When switching off your cell phone, you must take care to use the least amount of movement possible. Such a small movement will not invalidate your prayer, because you are doing it for the benefit of the prayer.

And Allah knows best.

Categories
Fiqh Prayer Q and A

Q&A: Prayer in a Moving Vehicle

This question is most commonly applied to airplanes nowadays. This fatwa is from islamtoday.net and the original can be found here.

 

Question

What is the ruling of prayer in a moving vehicle. In many cases, a passenger cannot leave from the vehicle during the time of the prayer, even when the vehicle is only a car.

Answered by

Sheikh `Abd Allah al-Suhaybânî, professor at al-Imâm University, al-Qasîm branch
It is permissible to perform prayer inside a moving vehicle such as a train, plane, ship or other means of conveyance.

This is conditional on the person being able to properly observe all the pillars, obligations and conditions of prayer while riding in the vehicle. Otherwise, the person should wait until he gets out of the vehicle and perform the prayer properly.

However, in a case where the person thinks that the prayer time could elapse before he arrives or before he will be able to leave from the vehicle, then it is permissible for him to perform prayer according to his circumstances.

Some people of knowledge have offered the opinion that if the prayer that the person needs to perform while in a moving vehicle can be combined with the prayer that comes after it (Zuhr with `Asr or Maghrib with `Ishâ’), then the person may combine the prayer with the one after it after departing from the vehicle.

In brief, the person who is forced to pray an obligatory prayer in a moving vehicle has to observe the pillars, obligations and conditions of the prayer to the best of his abilities.

In case he truly cannot do so, such as often is the case with facing the qiblah and standing, then he will be exempted. These things are obligatory when possible and are exempted in cases where they are not possible.

Allah says: “On no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear.” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 286]

And says: “Fear Allah as much as you can.” [Sûrah al-Taghâbun: 16]

Categories
Fiqh Prayer Q and A

Q&A: Person who prayed part of his prayer in congregation becoming imam of another

This is a question that comes up a lot in the masajid. The following answer is from en.islamtoday.net which is a website supervised by Shaykh Salman al-Auda. Original article here.

 

Question

If I come to the mosque late and find that the imam has finished praying but that some people who prayed part of their prayer behind the imam are still completing their prayers, should I take one of them as my imam and follow him in prayer? Can such a person become an imam for another?

Answered by

Sheikh Sa`d al-Shuwayrikh
If a person arrives late at the mosque and finds that the imam has finished praying, he should wait for some other latecomers to arrive and pray along with them. There is no evidence to support the practice of joining someone who had prayed part of his prayer in congregation with the imam and who is presently completing his prayer on his own.

Therefore, we say that it is better to wait and start a new congregation with other latecomers to the mosque instead of making indications to people who are busy finishing their prayers that you want them to act as your imam.

However, in the event of someone doing so, it is permissible for the person being followed to change his intention from that of praying on his own to that of being an imam for others, since it is generally permissible for a person to change his intention in this way.

The evidence for this is that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was once praying alone at night, then Ibn `Abbâs came and joined him in prayer. The Prophet (peace be upon him) completed his prayer leading Ibn `Abbâs. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (883) and Sahîh Muslim (763)]

And Allah knows best.

Categories
Fasting Fiqh Q and A

Using Toothpaste While Fasting

From islamtoday.net. The link can be found here: Using toothpaste while fasting

Question

I know that it is permissible to use siwâk toothsticks while fasting. However, can a person brush his teeth with toothpase, or would this break his fast?

Answered by

the Fatwa Department Research Committee – chaired by Sheikh `Abd al-Wahhâb al-Turayrî
It will not break your fast unless you swallow the toothpaste.

However, without going so far to say that it is makrûh to use toothpaste while fasting, Sheik Ibn al-`Uthaymîn discourages it. He says:

There is nothing wrong with a fasting person using toothpaste, as long as it does not go down his gullet. However, it would be better to refrain from using it, simply because it has a strong tendency to go down a person’s throat while he is unaware.

For this reason, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Exaggerate in inhaling water (while performing ablutions) except when you are fasting.”

Therefore, it is better for a fasting person to refrain from using toothpaste. The matter is easy. If he simply waits until after he breaks his fast to brush his teeth with toothpaste, he will have avoided what might possibly nullify his fast.

And Allah knows best.

Categories
Fasting Fiqh Q and A

Q: Fasting While Traveling

Q:

I will be traveling in Ramadan and I want to know if I need to fast?

 

A:

There are multiple scenarios for fasting while traveling. We’ll take them one at a time.

 

Scenario 1: Person starts traveling after maghrib and before fajr.

In this case it is permissible to not fast on that day because the day begins while the person is in a state of traveling.

 

Scenario 2: Person starts traveling after sunrise.

This is the more common scenario. Someone has a trip that starts in the morning or afternoon and they do not know if they should fast or not. There is a scholarly difference on this question.

Opinion 1: They must not break their fast. This is because they started fasting and then traveled afterwards. This is the opinion of the Hanafi, Maliki, and Shafi’i schools.

Opinion 2: They can break their fast. This is an opinion in the Hanbali school.

– Those who held this opinion differed as to when they break their fast. The Hanbali school holds that it must be only after they have started their journey and left the jurisdiction of their city. Some other early scholars, such as Hasan al-Basri, held that they may break their fast while still at home.

 

As a general principle when there is valid scholarly difference one can choose the opinion that is most reasonable for their situation as long as they are not trying to play with the deen.

If the person does decide to break their fast then they must make up that day after Ramadan.